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TOP STORY OF THE MONTH (October, 2014)

Sun October 19, 14

Sequence-based definition of eight short tandem repeat loci located within the HLA-region in an Austrian population - Forensic article feed - RSS
Microsatellites or short tandem repeats (STR) are highly polymorphic markers dispersed over the entire genome. Their variability is based on tandemly repeated motifs 2-6bp in length: alleles different in numbers of reiterations are thus differing in fragment length [1]. Many of them have been identified within the major histocompatibility (MHC) complex situated on the short arm of chromosome 6 (band 6p21.3) [2,3]. HLA-class I and class II loci have been used for paternity testing, but also for the analysis of forensic specimens.

FORENSIC BOTANY II, DNA barcode for land plants: which markers after the international agreement? - Forensic article feed - RSS
The ambitious idea of using a relatively short piece of DNA for large-scale species identification named DNA barcoding) is already a powerful tool for scientists and the application of this standard technique seems promising in a widespread range of fields including forensic genetics [1–6]. While DNA barcoding enjoyed a remarkable success for animal identification through cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) analysis, the attempts to identify a single barcode for plants remained a vain hope for a long time.

Development of an Italian RM Y-STR haplotype database: results of the 2013 GEFI collaborative exercise - Forensic article feed - RSS
Recently introduced rapidly mutating Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (RM Y-STR) loci, displaying a multiple-fold higher mutation rate relative to any other Y-STRs, including those conventionally used in forensic casework, have been demonstrated to improve the resolution of male lineage differentiation and to allow male relative separation usually impossible with standard Y-STRs. However, large and geographically-detailed frequency haplotype databases are required to estimate the statistical weight of RM Y-STR haplotype matches if observed in forensic casework.

Minimizing Inhibition of PCR-STR Typing Using Digital Agarose Droplet Microfluidics - Forensic article feed - RSS
PCR is an essential DNA analysis tool for forensic identification, clinical diagnosis, infectious disease detection, environmental monitoring, and archaeological testing. [1,2] However, the presence of naturally occurring impurities in low-quality biological samples can lead to different degrees of PCR inhibition (i.e. underestimation of DNA quantification, multiplex peak imbalance, and allele dropout) and even false-negative results, posing a big challenge especially in the DNA analysis of limited samples.

Forensic massively parallel sequencing data analysis tool:Implementation of MyFLq as a standalone web- and IlluminaBaseSpace-application - Forensic article feed - RSS
Routine use of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) for forensic genomics is on the horizon. The last few years, several algorithms and workflows have been developed to analyze forensic MPS data. However, none have yet been tailored to the needs of the forensic analyst who does not possess an extensive bioinformatics background.We developed our previously published forensic MPS data analysis framework MyFLq (My-Forensic-Loci-queries) into an open-source, user-friendly, web-based application. It can be installed as a standalone web application, or run directly from the Illumina BaseSpace environment.

Portuguese mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity–an update and a phylogenetic revision - Forensic article feed - RSS
In recent years a large amount of mitochondrial population data for forensic purposes has been produced. Current efforts are focused at increasing the number of studied populations while generating updated genetic information of forensic quality. However, complete mitochondrial control region sequences are still scarce for most populations and even more so for complete mitochondrial genomes. In the case of Portugal, previous population genetics studies have already revealed the general portrait of HVS-I and HVS-II mitochondrial diversity, becoming now important to update and expand the mitochondrial region analysed.

Examination of DNA methylation status of the marker may be useful for human age prediction in forensic science - Forensic article feed - RSS
Human chronological age is one of the most important clues employed by the investigators when tracking an unknown individual involved in a criminal case. In forensics, accurate age estimation from biological traces may have a value similar to analysis of externally visible characteristics (EVC) or biogeographical ancestry. It may inform an investigation by narrowing down the number of individuals that need to be considered when a suspect or victim has to be identified but evidence DNA profiles do not match reference or database data [1–3].

Genetic data on 17 STR autosomal loci for a sample population of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - Forensic article feed - RSS
This work aims to develop an allele frequencies database from samples of 504 unrelated individuals who, from 2008 to 2011, donated biological material to IPPGF (Instituto de Pesquisa e Perícias em Genética Forense), the State Police DNA Laboratory in charge of performing genetic identification in Rio de Janeiro State criminal cases. For this purpose, we have genotyped CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, vWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, D2S1338, D19S433, Penta E and Penta D loci.

Full mtGenome reference data: Development and characterization of 588 forensic-quality haplotypes representing three U.S. populations - Forensic article feed - RSS
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies hold great potential for efforts to expand forensic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typing beyond current capabilities. Since the first such technology was introduced in 2005 [1], MPS has transformed genetic data generation in many fields of research, including ancient DNA (for an overview of some ancient DNA studies that have used MPS, see Table 1 in Knapp and Hofreiter [2]; and for a review of the application of MPS to mtDNA sequencing in particular, see Ho and Gilbert [3] and Paijmans et al.

Haplotype and mutation analysis for newly suggested Y-STRs in Korean father–son pairs - Forensic article feed - RSS
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are widely used for forensic DNA analysis and paternity testing. In particular, Y-chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs) are useful for investigating sexual assault cases and deficiency paternity testing of male offspring because they provide a male-specific profile in a male-female mixture and, they are transmitted without recombination from fathers to sons so they represent paternal lineages [1]. However, spontaneous germline mutations lead to differentiation of Y-STR haplotypes between a father and his sons and can result in an erroneous exclusion of biological paternity.
Last updated : Tue October 21, 14 - 05:17:43




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